Standard depth of penetration formula
Eddy current density does not remain constant across the depth of a material. The density is greatest at the surface and decreases exponentially with depth the "skin effect". The standard depth of penetration equation shown to the right is used to explain the penetration capability of eddy current testing, which decreases with increasing frequency, conductivity, or permeability. To detect very shallow defects in a material, and also to measure the thickness of thin sheets, very high frequencies are used.
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Eddy current depth of penetration
Depth of Penetration & Current Density
When electrical resistivity m ohms-cm and relative permeability are known. Eddy currents are more concentrated at the surface and decrease in intensity with distance below the surface of the metal. This effect is known as the "skin effect. Although eddy currents penetrate deeper than one standard depth of penetration, they decrease rapidly with depth. The depth of penetration is dependent of test drive frequency, the test material's conductivity and magnetic permeability. The depth of penetration decreases with increasing frequency, conductivity and permeability. It is important to know the standard depth of penetration because for some testing like flaw detection the inspection should be conducted at a frequency that places the depth of any likely flaws at 1 d or less where eddy currents are strong.
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Swept Frequency Tech. Pulsed ET Tech. Eddy currents are closed loops of induced current circulating in planes perpendicular to the magnetic flux. They normally travel parallel to the coil's winding and flow is limited to the area of the inducing magnetic field. Eddy currents concentrate near the surface adjacent to an excitation coil and their strength decreases with distance from the coil as shown in the image.